Performance management issues are significant not only in the profit sector but also in the non-profit sector, such as in higher education. Because of the chairholder’s professional background at the State Secretary of Education and Research in Switzerland, we conducted various research and consulting projects on funding and performance for the Swiss University Conference, the State Secretary of Education and Research and the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Research. Given the fundamental reform processes that have occurred in the European higher education sector during the past two decades, we have been particularly interested in investigating the efficiency and productivity of Swiss, German and European universities. One of our main findings is that the reforms implemented by higher education institutions across Europe did not yield a decline in university performance. To our surprise, university efficiency and productivity slightly but steadily increased over time. Another topic we are interested in is quality management as being one of the key factors of international competitiveness in the higher education sector. Based on an international survey of more than 1,000 business schools worldwide we identified crucial parameters that influence success and contribute to the quality and reputation of these schools.